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Pregnancy Bliss | Reproductive Health Hub

DC, DA twins

Question:  what is the meaning of dc,da twins both cephalic and septum idratefected, fca 1st positive, 2nd positive? M. (Pakistan)


Answer: DC, DA twins is an abrreviation of the term dichorionic, diamniotic twins. ‘Dichorionic’ means there are two separate placentas and ‘diamniotic’ means there are two separate amniotic sacs. This is the commonest type of twins as detailed in the relevant section here. I am not sure what was mean’t by ‘septum idratefected’. My hunch is that you have probably misread it? Could it possibly be saying ‘septum identified?’.

It is necessary (but not always easy) to identify the dividing membrane (septum) between the two sacs for an objective confirmation that  you have ‘diamniotic’ twins.  In any case, if there are definitely two placentas, the twins will always be in two separate sacs.




Persistent vaginal spotting in early pregnancy

Question:  I am 10 weeks pregnant, but still experiencing spotted bleeding two/three times a week. Is it normal? If yes how long can I expect it to continue? F.A. (UK)


Answer: Persistent vaginal spotting in early pregnancy should always be regarded as threatened miscarriage until proven otherwise. That is, even if it is completely painless. You need to bring this to the attention of your GP where an examination and, most likely, an ultrasound scan, will be arranged. My best wishes.




Female masturbation during pregnancy

Question:  Is female masturbation injurious to the embryo or foetus? S. (USA)


Answer: Masturbation during pregnancy is completely harmless to both mother and fetus. This is also the case with sexual intercourse at any stage of pregnancy.



State of the hymen

Question:  I am 30 years old, never had sex, my question is, when hymen is there can a finger enter into vagina or hymen will be like wall and prevent entering the finger into vagina? I (India)


Answer: A hymen is a membrane found just inside the vaginal entrance. It is found around the entrance but with an opening in the centre. This allows menstrual blood to come out and, ofcourse, a finger can be inserted through that opening without breaking the hymenal membrane. In rare cases, some girls are born with a hymen that is completely closing the vagina. This is called an ‘imperforate hymen’. This is usually diagnosed when they reach puberty and are unable to have periods. If you are having normal periods, you can easily insert a finger through the hymenal membrane.








Heavy vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

Question:  I have just taken a pregnancy test it said I’m 3-4 weeks gone, i have now started bleeding quiet heavy. Wot should i do? Am i losing it? S (UK)


Answer: That is a cause for considerable concern. You have not mentioned pain and if, indeed, the bleeding is painless, this can only be described as a threatened miscarriage at this stage. In any case, you need to be seen promptly. An examination may be the only useful thing if you are indeed so early in the pregnancy. An ultrasound cannot show anything in a pregnancy less than 5 weeks gestation. However, if there was an error with your test, the scan may clarify the picture to tell you what is going on. You need to contact your doctor promptly.



Safety of ultrasound in pregnancy

Question:  Are there any effects on the foetus or the mother-to-be caused by ultrasound scan during pregnancy? C.S. (Zambia)


Answer: I take it by ‘effects’ you mean adverse effects?  As we have stated in the relevant section on this subject, there is no evidence of ill-effect from the appropriate use of ultrasound during pregnancy to either the mother or the baby in the womb. Ultrasound scan is used for practically every pregnant woman in all developed countries and this has been the case for decades. The evidence for its safety is therefore quite strong.





Screening blood test results

Question:  I had the nuchal blood tests 6 days ago and I today received a note from the midwife asking me to return for a repeat blood test. Is this sometimes normal? If abnormal results had been found, would I have been contacted by phone? Hope you can give some advise. Thank you. JM. (UK)


Answer: I hesitate to speculate on the reasons for a recall. I will, however, be very surprised if the reason was because of ‘abnormal’ results. That’s not the way it would be handled. The best thing to do is to contact your midwife who, I am sure, will be happy to clarify.


More questions and answers on the next page


intact hymen

A vaginal opening with an intact hymen