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Pregnancy Bliss | Reproductive Health Hub

Can the Y chromosome be transferred?

Comment:  I was wondering if it were possible to have the y chromosome injected to have a baby boy? If so what all has to be done to do this and what the cost would be? Please let me know as soon as possible. Thank you. B. H. (USA)


Answer: No, that is not possible. Every female egg carries an X chromosome. In contrast, the male sperm will either have a Y chromosome or an X chromosome. It is therefore the male sperm that determines whether the baby will be male or female. If the Y chromosome carrying sperm fertilizes the egg, you end up with a male baby. If the sperm with an X chromosome  fertilizes the egg, the baby will be female. The sex chromosome of the egg or the sperm for that matter cannot be altered. If prospective parents, for whatever reason, want a baby of a particular gender and not the other, this can be achieved through standard IVF. Eggs are harvested from the woman and fertilized using her partner’s sperm outside the womb. The resulting embryos are analysed to identify their sex. Only those embryos of the desired gender are then put back into the woman’s womb. This guarantees that if the pregnancy successfully establishes, the baby will be of the desired sex. Please bear in mind that gender selection for social reasons is prohibited by law in many countries. Your doctor should be able to advise you on the applicable laws and regulations where you are.



LCMV infection risk  in pregnancy

Question:   i am 26 weeks pregnant and am concerned about something i read recently on the internet regarding mice droppings, i was in a building within the first month of pregnancy where i did a bit of cleaning i am not sure if i cleaned up some mice droppings with a dust pan and brush also as the building does have this, although my routine pregnancy blood tests and scans have been normal is there any risk my baby could have been exposed to lcmv? i was checking this as just yesterday a mouse appeared and is contained within my front room, which I am avoiding to enter and leaving my husband to clear, is there anything i should be aware of or do as i am very scared of the risks to my baby? thank you. R.P. (UK)


Answer: LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) is a viral infection that is carried by rodents, mainly hamsters and mice. In an adult it will cause flu-like symptoms, usually mild. In fact, it could pass unrecognised. Its significance during pregnancy lies in the fact that it has been associated with congenital abnormalities. However, perspective is important here. LCMV infection in pregnancy and as a cause of fetal abnormalities is quite rare. If you are concerned that you may have been exposed to this infection, your doctor could arrange for a couple of blood tests. One is a non-specific full blood count (FBC) which may show a telltale pattern of the white cell count distribution and possibly a fall in platelet count. The other test is specific for the infection and looks at the rise in the IgM type of specific anti-LCMV antibodies. Again, I need to stress that, on balance of probabilities, it is unlikely you have been affected. This is a rare infection indeed. There has only ever been around 50 cases of confirmed fetal congenital abnormalities attributable to LCMV infection worldwide.



Negative pregnancy test and passing clots

Question:  am supposed to be 7 weeks pregnant,but i have been having bleeding with clot,for 4 days. I did a pregnancy test but it read negative,but i still have all the pregnancy symptoms.plz help me am i still pregnant? S. (Nigeria)
Answer: It is exceedingly unlikely that you are pregnant. Pregnancy tests are very sensitive nowadays and false negative tests are increasingly rare. That, combined with the degree of vaginal bleeding you appear to describe mean there is very little likelihood of there being a viable pregnancy still.



Sore breasts. Pregnant?

Question:   i had bleeding this month but my boobs hurt me, am i pregnant? V. (UK)


Answer: Whilst breast engorgement and tenderness can be early symptoms of pregnancy, these are very non-specific ones. Many hormonal changes can manifest similarly. I do not have a lot of detail in your question to advise you one way or another. Your best bet, if the symptom is persisting, is to perform a pregnancy test.



Botox for vaginismus

Question:  I have had vaginismus all my life and I am quite desperate. I have been married for almost 2 years now and have never been able to have intercourse. I am still a virgin!
I have tried everything, sexual therapy, trainers, etc. with no improvement. I have been told and read that a very successful treatment is botox injections.
Can this be done here in the UK. Does the NHS pay for it or is it only private? If so, how much can I expect it to cost and where do I go?
Thank you for any help! F. (UK)


Answer: Botulinum toxin or Botox, as it is more popularly known, can be used in the management of vaginismus as detailed in the section on the subject on this website. However, on the NHS, it can only be used for this purpose on a ‘named patient basis’.

This means, it does not belong to the standard list of drugs that can be used for this condition. The process involves your specialist making a case to the primary Care Trust (PCT), who are responsible for funding the treatment, that other forms of treatment have failed and therefore this is the next logical option. The PCT may or may not agree to the request. If you want to pursue this route, your first step should be to get referred to a gynaecologist at your local hospital. You can then make the case with the specialist and if he/she concurs, the formal request to the PCT can be made. If on the other hand, you wish to pursue the private route, your GP is still the best source of information on which specialists/consultants may be able to offer this service in the locality. At a wider geographical level, depending on where you live, you can check out these specialists who offer this service and are based in the West Midlands. Best wishes.