Wombs normally tilt gently towards the front. A substantial minority of women, however, do have wombs which tilt towards the back. The common term is "retroverted uterus". This does not cause miscarriage or pregnancy loss.
There is an exceedingly rare complication of this anatomical state, where a growing uterus may be trapped in the pelvis and will fail to rise into the abdominal cavity. This
will cause increasing pain and an operation will easily correct the problem. This complication is very rare.
What is the role of infections in early pregnancy loss?
Any acute infection which causes the woman to have a high temperature and be generally ill has the potential to cause miscarriage.
Remember: Infections do not have to be in the genital tract to pose a risk to the pregnancy.
What about alcohol and miscarriage?
There is evidence that sustained alcohol abuse can lead to pregnancy loss. Binge drinking has not been associated with this problem.
Can smoking increase the risk of miscarriage?
Yes. The risk increases with the the number of cigarettes smoked. This is dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 20, "Smoking and alcohol use in pregnancy".